Tuesday, April 7, 2020
Prescriptive Approach To Decision Making Essay Moral Philosophy: the principles and rules that are used to decide what is right or wrong; a moral philosophy States an ideal respective that most people accept Prescriptive approach to decision making: Consequential/Teleological: (consequences) the morality of behavior is evaluated on the basis of its consequences; behavior or conduct is morally right if it produces some desired result pleasure, promotion, profit; as such, the ends justify the means Utilitarianism: concerned for the greatest good for the greatest number; decisions are usually made on the basis of a cost benefit analysis. Efforts are made to look at the consequences for all possible alternatives before a decision is made Construction of a new road through your community: utilitarian rationale argues whether the benefits to the community increased development and employment, reduced traffic, fewer accidents) outweigh the harm to a few property holders noise pollution Challenge: can all the facts be obtained to make proper evaluation, projection and risk? Rights of the minority can be sacrificed for the benefit of the majority Deontological: (duties, obligations, principles) bases action/behavior on the Renville of equal rights, and respect for all persons; the focus is on the rights of individuals and the intentions that are associated with behavior Rights of individuals: (integrity) freedom of conscience, consent, privacy, speech and due process But what rule, principle or right to follow, when for example the right of the investor to profit conflict with the environmental rights of a community to clean air and water? We will write a custom essay sample on Prescriptive Approach To Decision Making specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Prescriptive Approach To Decision Making specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Prescriptive Approach To Decision Making specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Emmanuel Cants categorical imperative: act as if the maxim of thy action were to become by thy will a universal law of tauter, that is, whether the rationale for your action is suitable to become a universal law or principle for everyone to follow Golden Rule: do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Challenge: which duty, right, principle takes precedence?
Monday, March 9, 2020
Tips, Tricks, and Advice on How to Survive College Here are some tips, tricks, and solutions to common issues every new student faces on how to survive college and make it the ultimate experience of your life! Why Skipping Class Is Easy to Do and Even Easier to not do! Everyone does it. Some for great reasons, some for easy reasons, and some just because they never wanted to go in the first place. How to survive college starts with these tips for skipping and not skipping class: Pick classes you enjoy Find classes that make you want to attend, whether it is because you find the subject interesting, the professor inspiring, or because you like learning something new and different. Selecting classes that engage your intellect and curiosity is a great way to avoid the trap of skipping class. Think about what effect missing the class will have While being able to skip class is a huge perk of going to college, there is something most people forget when they do so. Every class you miss is money spent and wasted. Paying a college to not go to class is a waste of money. With student loans these days, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be paying for laziness for decades to come. Engage your professor/involve yourself in lectures and discussions The best way to enjoy a class is to engage in the discussions and learn to process and critique the opinions of others in a well thought out and intelligent way. The more you talk and ask questions, the more familiar you become with the subject matter and the more likely you are to want to continue learning, growing, and expressing your opinions to others who can provide feedback and alternative viewpoints Dont worry about doing it Everyone needs personal time. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing wrong with taking the mental health day you need to make sure that you can stick through the next four years. How to survive college starts with these little time management steps to keep you focused on the ultimate task at hand finishing college and creating a bright future for yourself! Balancing Everything That Is Going on Around You on Your Own A lot of people wonder about how to survive college with everything else that they have going on in their life (work/personal relationships/family/hobbies). How is it possible to manage your time in a way that keeps you motivated and doesnt burn you out before you have even had a chance to get started? Check out our top time management advice for how to survive college by learning to manage time effectively and in a way that gives you optimum productivity and a stress-free college experience: #1 Make a schedule and put it somewhere you see every day. You can purchase large calendars from most on-campus/home office supply stores. Take 5 or 10 minutes each day and evening to look through and familiarize and prepare yourself for the events of the day. This will allow you to better remember your commitments and obligations and keep your from overbooking yourself. #2 Keep lists of what you need to accomplish no matter how large or small. Many professional organizers claim that making lists is essential to accomplishing your goals. If you dont know what to put on your list, start with simple things and let the ball start rolling from there. Make your bed? Check! Brush your teeth? Check! Finish that paper? Check! Talk to your advisor? Check! #3 Dont over commit. Feeling like you can handle anything and everything that you get invited to do is a sure way to overwork yourself and makes it easier to just give up on everything. It is important to figure out where your optimum level of productivity and commitment intersect and make decisions on how you use your time based on that. Finding Your Place LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say you learn to go to class and manage your time better but for some reason, it still feels like you are having trouble keeping your head above water. Common reasons for this include: Not being able to connect with people Not understanding coursework Having too much work and not enough time Needing money Fear of teachers and professors Follow the advice below to get yourself mentally and physically prepared to handle the life-altering experience college can provide: Dont be afraid to speak up If there is something you need, be it money, food, advice, extra time to complete an assignment, changing your major, etc, you need to say something about it. Not doing so only keeps you trapped in the dull and the borning and is in no way conducive to helping you have the ultimate college experience. Engage your environment College campuses have so many activities, programs, social events, and resources to help you get everything you need to feel safe, secure, and feeling like a successful student. Talk to your advisors, use the library, sign up for events to keep your mind and body active. Dont sit around and let all the amazing opportunities around pass you by! Introduce yourself to every single person you meet Never be afraid to say hello to someone. Opportunities for anything are always around on a college campus and the more people you talk to the more likely it is that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have the opportunity to try new and different things. This is one of the best ways to grow a network of friends and contacts that could help you further your career and relationship goals. Try new hobbies Book clubs, fraternities, sororities, social justice clubs, and more all exist in college. If you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t sure what to sign up for then just pick something at random. Maybe you like it and maybe you dont. The point is that you wont know until you try and once you do you will have a better idea and understanding of what it is that you actually want to be doing. Find new ways of entertaining yourself While partying is a huge part of campus culture, you can be sure of one thing, it gets old fast! Especially if itÃ¢â¬â¢s all you are doing. Check out parks and outdoor activities, take a day trip to a city or town nearby, or sign up for an activity that isnt related to going to college. In this way, you will have something other than standard party conversation to talk about with the people you meet and you will avoid the Ã¢â¬Å"burn outÃ¢â¬ often felt by those whose entire college life consists of one or two activities. Eat well Dont live off of junk food. It is bad for the body and mind. Poor diet comes with its own side effects that could make you miss school, lack the energy needed to focus, and be more costly than learning to cook a simple healthy meal. While this list isnÃ¢â¬â¢t comprehensive, it is a great start how to survive college and achieve the ultimate college experience you are looking for. EveryoneÃ¢â¬â¢s experience is unique and it is up to you to learn how to survive college in a way that works best for you!
Friday, February 21, 2020
Week Four Individual Assignment - Essay Example I will be analyzing the databases used in the accounting department of my organization, a meat processing plant. One of the databases used by the accounting department of my meat processing plant is Microsoft Access. Access has an interface that does not require users to know and use structured query language (SQL). Those responsible for the utilization and maintenance of this database in my organization are not necessarily well-versed in SQL, so the easy-to-use interfaces of Access in beneficial in the efficiency of its use. (There is still plenty of room for errors for those that are not familiar with SQL, however.) Also good for efficiency is the fact that Access automatically categorizes objects. Organization of data is crucial, and Access provides sound organization. Because only the accounting department of my organization is using Access rather than the entire organization as a whole, Access works, at least for now. It is important to note that Access has been known to encounter errors or data corruption with very large data files. If my particular organization continues to expand and thus encounters greater quantities of data, it may be necessary to implement the use of a different database. It is unlikely, however, that weÃ¢â¬â¢ll expand quite that much. It has been said that Ã¢â¬Å"the right database accounting software [is the one that] will grow with your company.Ã¢â¬ (Dininni, 2008). Because Microsoft Access is so well known and widely used, there are many accounting software add-ons that can be obtained from the internet. Additionally, many of them are free. This will certainly be beneficial should my company encounter changing or additional needs or tasks. It may have been more efficient to have chosen a different database program from the start Ã¢â¬â one that was more specified toward the field of accounting. However, the software add-ons fulfill the needs of this company and at this point it would be very
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
How can the efforts of temperance movement in response to alcohol be explained - Essay Example During the Victorian era this movement became more drastic, campaigning for legal prohibition of alcohol rather than promoting moral suasion or calling for moderation. All in all, its efforts were perceived in both progressive politics especially female suffrage and religious renewal. Band of Hope, a temperance movement, was founded in Leeds with the working class being their centre of attention. They strived to keep away children of the working class from the dangers of alcoholism. In 1851 there was a success in banning or restricting the selling of alcohol in various parts of the U.S (Nugent, 2011). The prohibitionists formed different organizations inside the movement to address the problem of alcoholism from all perspectives. The anti-saloon league concentrated on creating dry counties and dry states away from alcohol. Moreover, the movement began to look for alternative places to hold their meetings thereby replacing the roles of public bars. Therefore, they introduced coffee pa laces, temperance halls, temperance theatre and temperance fountains where individuals could reliably get drinking water instead of having to get into the saloons. The movement began to nominate candidates for government offices and forming political parties thus producing leaders who supported the ban of alcohol. All in all they believed that taking alcohol was a deviant, moral and offset to Christianity (Nugent, 2011). The temperance movement advocated for its views with mounting stridency with which could not be of comparison to the use of mass media at the moment in terms of response, commitment and scope. The government of United States has identified alcoholism to be its leading drug problem. Consequently, it initiated some tools to promote more self control. The major tool is higher excise tax which inflates the prices on alcoholic beverages (Sartor, 2013). This helps promote standards of living and public health. Other successful control measures are heavy penalties for driv ing under influence of alcohol, minimum purchasing age to deter underage citizens from abuse, privatization in retail alcohol sales dram-shop liability and limitations on alcohol advertising. Privatization has proved to be effective in controlling sales of alcoholic beverages hence commercial retailing of these beverages is made possible. Never the less, the government also amended the constitution in1919 to prohibit the transportation, sale or manufacture intoxicating liquors. Efforts of temperance movement and the U.S response to alcohol explained in terms of racial prejudice Temperance movement gained more recognition in women suffrage after the seventeenth Amendment. This amendment created a new reliable workforce with prejudice to German-Americans together with their breweries which made ban of alcohol a patriotic cause. Moreover, prohibitionists clamored to make alcohol abuse directed to common racial prejudices thereby convincing others to ban alcohol (Nugent, 2011). The anti -saloon league in the temperance movement portrayed Catholics as morally depraved and intellectually inferior as they feared authoritarian orders from Rome would replace their capitalist and democratic principles. Pro-prohibition groups using rhetorical strategies claimed that alcohol influenced African- Americans to commit serious crimes. The
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
The concepts of data warehouse and data mining in organization Introduction In today real world, most of information and data has been managed or organized by using information technology and also information system. Information systems are now widely use in every industry to stored data and information for future use. Data warehouse and data mining are the common process that can be found in information technology field. Data warehouse are used to store a huge volume of data and data mining can be defined as a process of pull out patterns fromdata. Data warehouse Adata warehouseworks as an electronic storage area of an organizations to stored data. Data warehouses are planned to assist in reporting and analysis for an organization. Retrieving and analyzing data, extracting, transforming and loading and managing data are also the fundamental components of a data warehousing. The data warehouse has specific characteristics that include the following: 1. Subject-Oriented Information is presented according to specific subjects or areas of interest, not simply as computer files. Data is manipulated to provide information about a particular subject. 2. Integrated Data stored in a worldwide accepted method with constant measurements, naming conventions, physical characteristic and encoding structures. 3. Non-Volatile Stable information that doesnt change each time an operational process is executed. Information is consistent in any case of when the warehouse is accessed. 4. Time-Variant Containing a history of the subject, as well as current information. Historical information is an important component of a data warehouse. 5. Process-Oriented It is important to view data warehousing as a process for delivery of information. The maintenance of a data warehouse is ongoing and iterative in nature. 6. Accessible Provide easy access for information to end-users. There are three Data Warehouse Models: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Enterprise warehouse collects all of the information about subjects across the entire organization Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Data Mart a subset of corporate-wide data that is of value to a specific groups of users. Its scope is confined to specific, selected groups, such as marketing data mart Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Virtual warehouse A set of views over operational databases .Only some of the possible summary views may be materialized Data Warehouse Concepts In data warehouse, there are several concepts that can be listed as valued to data ware housing and the value concepts as per below: 1. Dimensional Data Model- Dimensional data model is usually used in data warehousing systems. This section describes this modeling technique, and the two common schema types,star schemaandsnowflake schema. It is the most regularly used in data warehousing systems. 3rd normal form is different from it, regularly used for transactional (OLTP) type systems. There are few term that can be define regularly to understand dimensional data modeling: Dimension: A category of information. For example, the time dimension. Attribute: A unique level within a dimension. For example, Month is an attribute in the Time Dimension. Hierarchy: The specification of levels that represents relationship between different attributes within a dimension. For example, one possible hierarchy in the Time dimension is Year Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ Quarter Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ Month Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ Day. Slowly Changing Dimension: This is a common issue facing data warehousing practioners. This section explains the problem, and describes the three ways of handling this problem with examples. Conceptual Data Model: A conceptual data model identifies the relationships between the different entities. character of conceptual data model including: Includes the important entities and the relationships among them. No specified attribute. There is no specified primary key. The figure below is an example of a conceptual data model. Conceptual Data Model From the figure above, we can see that the only information shown via the conceptual data model is the entities that describe the data and the relationships between those entities. No other information is shown through the conceptual data model. Logical Data Model: Logical data models explain the data in as much detail as feasible, without look upon to how they will be corporeal apply in the database. Features of a logical data model include: * Consist of all units, entities and relationships between them. * All attributes for each unit are precise and specific. * The primary key for each entity is particular precise. * Foreign keys (keys recognize the relationship between different entities) are specified. * Normalization transpires at this level. The steps for scheming the logical data model are as follows: 1. Identify input keys for all entities. 2. Locate the relationships between different entities. 3. Discover all attributes for each entity. 4. Determine many-to-many relationships. 5. Normalization. The figure below is an example of a logical data model. Logical Data Model The different between two conceptual data of the model from the diagram and the logical data as to be listed below: * Primary keys are present, whereas in a theoretical data model, no primary key is present in a logical data model. * All attributes are specified in an entity. No characteristic are specified in a conceptual data model also in a logical data model, * In a conceptual data model, the relationships are basically set, not explicit, so we simply know that two entities are related, but we do not specify what attributes are used for this relationship. The relationships between entities are specified using primary keys and foreign keys in a logical data model. Physical Data Model Conceptual, Logical, and Physical Data Model: Altered or different levels of abstraction for a data model. This part compares and contrasts the three other types of data models. Data Integrity: What is data integrity and how it is obligatory and enforced in data warehousing. OLAP- stands for On-Line Analytical Processing. The first detonation to provide a definition to OLAP was by Dr. Codd, who proposed 12 rules for OLAP. Then, it was discovered that this particular white paper was support by one of the OLAP tool vendors, thus causing it to drop objectivity. The OLAP Report has proposed the FASMI test, Fast Analysis of Shared Multidimensional Information. Bill Inmon vs. Ralph Kimball: These two data warehousing heavyweights have a different outlook of the role between data warehouse and data mart. In the data warehousing field, we frequently attend to about discussions on where a person / organizations viewpoint falls into Bill Inmons camp or into Ralph Kimballs camp. We describe below the difference between the two. Bill Inmons paradigm: Data warehouse is one part of the overall business intelligence system. An enterprise has one data warehouse, and data marts source their information from the data warehouse. In the data warehouse, information is stored in 3rd normal form. Ralph Kimballs paradigm: Data warehouse is the conglomerate of all data marts within the enterprise. Information is always stored in the dimensional model. http://www.1keydata.com/datawarehousing/concepts.html There is no accurate or incorrect between these two idea and views, as they symbolize diverse data warehousing philosophies. In reality, the data warehouse in most schemes is closer to Ralph Kimballs idea. This is because most data warehouses on the go out as a departmental attempt, and hence they invented as a data mart. Only when more data marts are built later do they develop into a data warehouse. There are many theories can be used in executing the data warehouse and depends on the criterion of data that appropriate the significance of the system needed. These concepts are copyright from the website http://www.1keydata.com/datawarehousing/inmon-kimball.html. The Benefits of data warehouse to the organization * The potential to handle server tasks and responsibilities connected to querying which is not used by most operation systems. * Can be ended within the good time frame * The set up do not need a technical skill workers * Data warehouses are exotic unique that they can act as a repository, a repository for transaction processing systems that have been cleaned. * Can produce reports, data extracts, can also be done from outside sources. * Chronological information for competent and competitive analysis * Niche data quality and completeness * Enhancement disaster recovery plans with another data back up source Data Mining Introduction Data mining is the progression of analyzing data from dissimilar standpoint and summarizing it into practical information information that can be used to increase profits, cuts costs, or both. Data mining can also called data or knowledge innovation or knowledge discovery. Software of data mining is one of a number of systematic and methodological tools for evaluating or analyzing data. It assigns the users to analyze and evaluate the data from many different scope or angles, dimensions, proportions, categorize it, and review and summarize the relationships identified. In technical view, data mining is the procedure of finding relationship or patterns among all of fields in large relational databases. The Knowledge Discovery in Databases procedure includes of a few steps the most important from raw and undefined data compilation to some form of innovative knowledge. The progression as of the following stepsÃ ²: * Data cleaning: also known as data cleansing, it is a stage in which noise data and irrelevant data are removed from the group collection. * Data integration: at this point, multiple data sources, often heterogeneous, may be combined in a general source. * Data selection: at this step, the data relevant to the analysis is decided on and retrieved from the data collection. * Data transformation: also known as data consolidation, it is a phase in which the certain data is transformed into forms suitable for the mining process. * Data mining: it is the vital step in which smart techniques are applied to extract patterns potentially valuable. * Pattern evaluation: in this step, firmly interesting patterns representing knowledge are identified based on given method. * Knowledge representation: is the final chapter in which the exposed knowledge is visually represented to the user. This crucial step uses visualization techniques to help users understand and infer the data mining results. Function Data mining is mainly data and knowledge for each relation of tools. It enables to decide relationships among home factors and external factors for each study. The purpose as large-scale information technology has been emergent detach transaction and analytical systems, data mining provides the link between the two. Data mining software analyzes relationships and patterns in stored transaction data based on open-ended user inquiry. Data mining consists of five major elementsÃ ³: * Remove, transform, and load transaction data onto the data warehouse system. * Store and administer the data in a multidimensional database system. * Provide data access to business forecaster and information technology professionals. * Analyze the data by relevance software. * Present the data in a useful format, such as a graph or chart. Ã ² http://www.exinfm.com/pdffiles/intro_dm.pdf Ã ³ http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty/jason.frand/teacher/technologies/palace/datamining.htm Data Mining Concepts Data mining process contains of 5 processes, there areÃ ³: * State the problem * Collect the data * Perform pre-processing * Approximate the model (mine the data) * Interpret the model draw the finale Ã ³http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/24/04712285/0471228524-1.pdf
Monday, January 20, 2020
Speeding Is A Dead End Part of being a human being is learning from our mistakes. It is a natural process that we all experience at various periods of our lives. For instance, throughout the process of learning how to solve mathematics problems, the only method is to practice solving the problems. During this process of solving the problems, it is only natural to make mistakes. By comparison, in life in general, the only way to learn to become a better person is by correcting the mistakes that were previously experienced. During the past eighteen years, I have learned many lessons as a result of primarily making mistakes. My mother always told me to obey the speed limit because one day I will unexpectedly have to pay the price. Not only could I kill myself by speeding, I could kill other innocent people that could have been involved. Moreover, not only did I not comply with the speed limit, I did not obey my mother. Unfortunately, I learned my lesson one gloomy day when I got caught for speeding on a city street by a police officer. It was the typical setting to be accused for a driving offense. The clouds were gray, the roads were slick due to a recent rainfall and there was not many cars on the road encouraging me to drive faster. I had just gone through a yellow light at a major intersection and when I looked straight ahead, there was not a car in sight. Due to the fact that the road was "all mine", I was encouraged to travel twenty-five kilometers over the speed limit. Admittedly, I almost heard my mother telling me to slow down. After my increase in velocity, I noticed I was approaching a downhill. Since I was driving downhill, I was forced to pick up speed and I reached approximately 100 km/h. When I reached the level road again, I was able to see the road ahead. To my surprise, I noticed an old, rotten car parked on the shoulder of the road and a person wearing a hat getting out of it. As I drew nearer, I noticed that it was a police officer directing me to stop the car and park on the shoulder of the
Sunday, January 12, 2020
In the Progressive Movement that began in the late 1800s was about governmental reforms and correcting injustices in the American life. There were problems that were present in the American life and plans and reforms proposed during the Progressive Era to address the problems faced by many Americans in the early 1800s late 1900s. There were problems that were present in the American Life. Poor families lived in crowded 1 room houses (Doc1). Sanitation was very hard for poor families to keep up. Children even worked between the ages of ten and fifth teen years old with barely any pay (Doc3). Susan B. Anthony argued to support the demand for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right to vote (Doc8). Also in factories workers did not wash their hands while working. Some workers limbs, bugs, and rats were cut into the meats. All of these issues were major during the late 1800s and early 1900s for people in the U. S. Plans and reforms were proposed during the Progressive era to address the problems that were faced by many Americans in the early 1800s late 1900s. Jane Adams built an inexpensive house for poor families to live in named the Ã¢â¬Å"Haul HouseÃ¢â¬ in Chicago IL. This house was a great help to families. The child labor rate dropped between 1890 and 1920 (Doc3). Women were given their right to vote. Susan B. Anthony fought for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage so woman can be treated equal as men (Doc8). Upton Sinclair wrote a book named Ã¢â¬Å"The JungleÃ¢â¬ explaining how in factories spoiled meat could be used to be chopped up in other things (Doc2). A Progressive Party Platform was proposed to prevent industrial accidents for health and safety issues (Doc6). This helped with the workers limbs for being cut off in food products. President Teddy R. proposed the FDA act to prevent unhealthy foods from being sent out. Expiration dates and health expectations were required. These plans and reforms helped major Americans during the Progressive Movement. Therefore in the Progressive Movement that began in the late 1800s was about governmental reforms and correcting injustices in the American life. There were many problems that were present in the American life and plans and reforms that were proposed during the Progressive Era to address the problems faced by many Americans in the early 1800s late 1900s.